Many chemical agents are available to prevent the potential movement of invasive species. However, the use of chemical treatments sometimes poses disposal and wastewater concerns. If chemical treatments are used, local standards of waste disposal must be followed. Since local regulations for chemical disposal may vary, always contact a local chemical waste management facility, the Environmental Protection Agency, or refer to the Material Safety Data Sheet for recommendations on proper disposal prior to use of any chemical. Some state states may also require certification or licensing for personnel who use chemical treatments. Finally, some solutions may cause corrosion on metal surfaces and electrical connections; thus be sure to follow all label restrictions and manufacture guidelines. Following treatment, rinse all surfaces with clean water and dry thoroughly.
Diluted household bleach solution provides an inexpensive, effective way to control invasive species. Soak or spray equipment for at least one minute with a 2% bleach solution (3 ounces of household bleach mixed with 1 gallon of water). If invasive pathogens or diseases are suspected, a 10% solution should be used (13 ounces of household bleach mixed with 1 gallon of water). Note that bleach is an extremely effective disinfection agent, but it is a caustic substance that can be corrosive to aluminum and other sensitive fishing and boating equipment.
Of the materials traditionally used to disinfect for human or animal health purposes, quaternary ammonium compounds have been found to be effective in controlling viruses and pathogens. Commercial formulations, such as Parvasol® and Kennelsol®, are available through laboratory or veterinary supply companies. Household cleansers/disinfectants, such as Formula 409® and Fantastic® that contain the quaternary ammonium compound alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride can also be used to disinfect equipment. These solutions can be used full strength as a spray, or diluted for soaking with 2 parts water to 1 part disinfectant. For all materials, follow label instructions and be sure to soak equipment for a minimum of 10 minutes. Be sure to dispose of materials away from surface waters in accordance with label restrictions.
Other common chemical decontamination methods are:
• Undiluted white vinegar for 20 minutes.
• 1% potassium permanganate solution at 24-hour exposure.
• 5% quaternary ammonium solution for 10 minutes.
• 250 mg/L ROCCAL (benzalkonium chloride) for 15 minutes
• 500 mg/L hydrogen peroxide for 60 minutes
• 167 mg/L formalin for 60 minutes
• 1% table salt (based on 312 g per cup sodium)
Spiny Water Fleas
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